# Kyoto2.org

Tricks and tips for everyone

# How is fire danger measured?

## How is fire danger measured?

In summary, fire danger rating is a numeric scaling of the potential over a large area for fires to ignite, spread, and require fire suppression action. It is derived by applying local observations of current or predicted conditions of fuel, weather, and topographic factors to a set of complex science-based equations.

## What determines fire hazard?

The fire hazard severity model for wildland fire has two key elements: probability of an area burning and expected fire behavior. Hence, the factors considered in determining fire hazard are how often an area will burn and, when it does burn, what characteristics might lead to buildings being ignited.

What is a Level 5 fire?

Level 5 (PL5) This is the highest level of wildland fire activity. Several geographic areas are experiencing large, complex wildland fire incidents, which have the poten- tial to exhaust national wildland firefighting resources.

### What is ERC value?

The ERC is a number related to the available energy (BTU) per unit area (square foot) within the flaming front at the head of a fire. The ERC is considered a composite fuel moisture index as it reflects the contribution of all live and dead fuels to potential fire intensity.

### How is burn index calculated?

The Burning Index is a number related to the contribution of fire behavior to the effort of containing a fire. The BI is derived from a combination of Spread and Energy Release Components. It is expressed as a numeric value closely related to the flame length in feet multiplied by ten.

How are fires rated?

Fire class ratings are a way of classifying materials by their ability to support and propagate fire and also indicate the smoke produced by the material. This is determined by a flame spread index.

#### What fire danger means?

Fire danger is a description of the combination of both constant and variable factors that affect the initiation, spread, and ease of controlling a wildfire on an area.

#### What is Level 3 fire?

Level 3 means danger is currently affecting your area or is imminent, and you should leave immediately.

What is ERC wildfire?

The Energy Release Component (ERC) is an NFDRS (National Fire Danger Rating System) index related to how hot a fire could burn. It is directly related to the 24-hour, potential worst case, total available energy (BTUs) per unit area (in square feet) within the flaming front at the head of a fire.

## What is NBR index?

The Normalized Burn Ratio (NBR) is an index designed to highlight burnt areas in large fire zones. The formula is similar to NDVI, except that the formula combines the use of both near infrared (NIR) and shortwave infrared (SWIR) wavelengths.

## What is ISO fire rating?

An ISO fire rating is a score provided to fire departments and insurance companies by the Insurance Services Office. The score reflects how prepared a community and area is for fires. While it mainly focuses on the local fire departments and water supply, there are other factors that contribute to an area’s score.

What is class A fire rating?

Flame spread classifications are developed using the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) “tunnel test.” Class A fire ratings indicate flame-spread of 0-25 and smoke developed between 0-450 and is the highest of the ratings. The Class A or Class I rating indicates superior fire protection.

### WHAT ARE HIGH ERC values?

The ERC is a cumulative or “build-up” type of index. As live fuels cure and dead fuels dry, the ERC values get higher, thus providing a good reflection of drought conditions. The scale is open-ended or unlimited and, as with other NFDRS components, is relative.

### What does fire danger moderate mean?

When the fire danger is “moderate” it means that fires can start from most accidental causes, but the number of fire starts is usually pretty low. If a fire does start in an open, dry grassland, it will burn and spread quickly on windy days. Most wood fires will spread slowly to moderately.

What are the 5 stages of fire?

• 1.2. Growth Stage (incipient) • During the growth stage a fire increases in size from small flames to full.
• 1.3. Fully Developed Stage (free-burning) • In the fully developed stage the entire room and contents are involved in fire.
• 1.4. Decay Stage (smoldering) •
• MODERN CONTENT FIRES. 2.1.

#### What is ERC percentile?

ERC values range from 28-31. HIGH: 61-90 percentile. ERC values range from 21-27, most fires occur in this range. Moderate: 15-60 percentile.

How is NBR calculated?

NBR is used to identify burned areas and provide a measure of burn severity. It is calculated as a ratio between the NIR and SWIR values in traditional fashion. In Landsat 4-7, NBR = (Band 4 – Band 7) / (Band 4 + Band 7). In Landsat 8-9, NBR = (Band 5 – Band 7) / (Band 5 + Band 7).

## How do you read NBR?

A high NBR value indicates healthy vegetation while a low value indicates bare ground and recently burnt areas. Non-burnt areas are normally attributed to values close to zero.

## How is ISO fire rating calculated?

You can usually contact your local fire department and provide your ZIP code to find out the score for your area and when your department’s score was updated.