What molds produce trichothecenes?
What molds produce trichothecenes?
Stachybotrys chartarum is a well-known, but also controversial damp building mold and many strains of this mold are capable of producing trichothecenes.
What is the Mycotoxicosis?
Mycotoxicosis is the consequence of ingestion of grains or forage containing toxic metabolites produced by certain fungi. Fungi that produce toxins often do so only under specific conditions of warmth, moisture and humidity.
What is trichothecene mycotoxins?
The trichothecene mycotoxins are a group of toxins produced by multiple genera of fungi. Some of these substances may be present as contaminants from mold or may occur naturally in foodstuffs or in livestock feeds. Symptoms may occur among exposed humans or animals.
How do you test for trichothecenes?
The RealTime Labs mycotoxin test detects 16 different mycotoxins, including 9 macrocyclic trichothecenes. Testing is done using competitive ELISA, a very sensitive detection method using antibodies prepared against mycotoxins. The validation testing has been published in peer reviewed journal (2009).
How long does it take for mycotoxins to leave the body?
Those who process toxins well can see their symptoms disappear as quickly as a few days. Others who eliminate toxins slowly can experience symptoms for much longer. They could be ill for months or even years after the source of mold is eliminated.
Where is trichothecene found?
Trichothecenes belong to a large family of secondary metabolites, with over 150 members. They are primarily produced by species from the genus Fusarium, but also by isolates from the genera Myrothecium, Stachybotrys and Trichoderma. Trichothecenes occur in cereal grains such as wheat, barley, maize, oats and rice.
What is the difference between mycosis and mycotoxicosis?
Mycotoxicosis is commonly used to define the effect of mycotoxin (s), which is often facilitated through many organs, particularly kidney, liver, and lungs, and consequently endocrine and immune system, whereas mycosis refers to general infections caused by fungi in human and animals due to different environmental and …
Is trichothecene black mold?
Several types of trichothecenes are infamously produced by Stachybotrys chartarum, also called black mold.
Can Epoxitrichothecenes be used as a bioweapon?
The plans for use as a large-scale bioweapon were dropped, as the relevant epoxitrichothecenes degrade very quickly under UV light and heat, as well as chlorine exposure, making them useless for open attacks and the poisoning of water supplies. ^ Etzel RA (2002). “Mycotoxins”. JAMA. 287 (4): 425–7. doi: 10.1001/jama.287.4.425. PMID 11798344.
What is epoxithichothecene poisoning?
Epoxitrichothecenes are a variation of the above, and were once explored for military use in East Germany, and possibly the whole Soviet bloc. There is no feasible treatment once symptoms of epoxithichothecene poisoning set in, though the effects can subside without leaving any permanent damage.
What is the effect of deepoxidation on Trichothecene toxicity?
There has been complete loss of toxicity of the trichothecenes using deepoxidation, and reduction of their toxicity using acetylation, and oxidation of the food items. Changes to the C-3 position and the epoxide have the greatest impact on toxicity.
Are there any natural antioxidants against trichothecene-induced oxidative stress?
Due to trichothecenes generation of free radicals, numerous natural compounds have been analyzed and have shown to function very effectively as antioxidants against trichothecenes. Natural products have been shown to inhibit trichothecene-induced oxidative stress by: Inhibiting ROS generation and induced DNA damage and lipid peroxidation