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Where is Sindbis virus found?

Where is Sindbis virus found?

Sindbis virus is widely and continuously found in insects (the main vectors are Culex and Culiseta mosquitoes) and vertebrates in Eurasia, Africa, and Oceania.

Is Zika an RNA virus?

Zika virus is a single-stranded RNA virus of the Flaviviridae family, genus Flavivirus. Zika virus is transmitted to humans primarily through the bite of an infected Aedes species mosquito (Ae. aegypti and Ae.

What type of disease is chikungunya?

Chikungunya is a viral disease transmitted to humans by infected mosquitoes. It is caused by the chikungunya virus (CHIKV). A CHIKV infection causes fever and severe joint pain. Other symptoms include muscle pain, joint swelling, headache, nausea, fatigue and rash.

Are Alphaviruses enveloped?

Alphavirus particles are enveloped, have a 70 nm diameter, tend to be spherical (although slightly pleomorphic), and have a 40 nm isometric nucleocapsid.

What is Rift Valley Fever?

Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a disease of domestic ruminants, caused by an arbovirus belonging to the Phlebovirus genus (Bunyaviridae family). The RVF virus was first identified in 1931 during an investigation into an epidemic among sheep on a farm in the Rift Valley in Kenya.

Is Zika a pathogen or vector?

Zika virus is a member of the Flaviviridae family and is transmitted to humans by mosquitoes. It is related to other pathogenic vector borne flaviviruses including dengue, West-Nile and Japanese encephalitis viruses but produces a comparatively mild disease in humans.

Is Ebola DNA or RNA virus?

The virion nucleic acid of Ebola virus consists of a single-stranded RNA with a molecular weight of approximately 4.0 x 10(6).

What is a vector of chikungunya?

Chikungunya virus is primarily transmitted to people through the bite of an infected mosquito, mainly Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus.

Is chikungunya is a vector-borne disease?

Chikungunya, lymphatic filariasis, onchocerciasis and West Nile virus. These are 10 vector-borne diseases carried by mosquitoes, ticks, flies and other vectors that put one of every two people in the Americas at risk.

Are all alphaviruses arboviruses?

Alphaviruses are typical arboviruses and many members of this family are severe pathogens such as chikungunya virus. Other members include Sindbis virus, Una virus, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus, Ross River virus, etc.

How do alphaviruses replicate?

The replication and propagation of viruses is dependent on entry into permissive cells. Viral entry is initiated by attachment of virions to cells, leading to internalization, and uncoating to release genetic material for replication and propagation.

How is Valley fever transmitted?

People can get Valley fever by breathing in the microscopic fungal spores from the air, although most people who breathe in the spores don’t get sick. Usually, people who get sick with Valley fever will get better on their own within weeks to months, but some people will need antifungal medication.

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